白粉的秘密

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油條啊油條

<strong><span style="font-size: large">忘了上次那位問了油條的問題!<br /><br />請再留言一下。</span></strong><span style="font-size: large"><img alt="" src="http://pics.blog.yam.com/images/smiley/msn/y04.gif" /><br /></span>
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酵母,泡打粉,蘇打粉

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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><b><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW">泡打粉與酵母的不同:
<p><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">朋友部落格上有人問:做發糕用的發粉跟做麵的酵母有什麼不同?</span> <span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">想了一想,這也蠻有趣的問題。就回覆到他的部落格上。</span><span lang="EN-US"><a href="http://www.wretch.cc/blog/lu20vincent/20903263">http://www.wretch.cc/blog/lu20vincent/20903263</a>
<p><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">很多人都喜歡烘焙的過程跟品嚐自己的成果,也不是都有必要上烘焙專業課程。所以到材料行買原料的時候,可能都只知道要用發粉來做產品;至於發粉是什麼,可能得到的回答都有點模寧兩可。</span> <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</span></p>
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<p><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">發粉,這名詞;對我有點陌生。</span> <span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">發粉可能是一種統稱的用法,指要用來做發酵產品所需要添加的粉。</span> <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">但是發酵產品不同,運用來發酵的媒介物也不同。這也難怪很多朋友會被弄得有點混淆。</span> <span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">常用來產生發酵產氣作用的添加物,除了老麵發酵(下次再來討論老麵),跟利用蛋白泡外,不外乎使用酵母,蘇打粉,泡打粉。</span> <span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">先排除探討每一種產品各自的培養方法(天然酵母)跟化學配方(蘇打粉,泡打粉)。</span> <span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">這裡單純的介紹最容易混淆的泡打粉,蘇打粉,跟酵母的使用目的。</span></p>
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<p>&nbsp;<span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">泡打粉</span><span lang="EN-US">B.P.(Baking Powder) </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是一種化學產品,基本上遇水就立刻產生膨發產氣作用(</span><span lang="EN-US">leavening</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">),而產生鈉,水,二氧化碳;過程中無香味的產出,一般使用在麵糊類產品,例如,中式發糕,西式西點產品等;另外也拿來當作酸鹼中和的目的使用。</span><span lang="EN-US">
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4">泡打粉跟蘇打粉的化學反應 </font>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4">===============================</font>
<p><span><font size="4">泡打粉 (<span lang="EN-US">Baking powder</span>)</font><span lang="EN-US"><font size="4"> </font>
<p><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4">=<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>蘇打粉 (bakng soda) +<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>一種或多種酸性物質(例如塔塔粉)+稀釋粉(例如玉米粉) </font>
<p><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="4">NaHCO3<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>+<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>H+<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>-----&gt;<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Na+<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>+<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>H20<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>+<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>CO2 </font>
<p><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4">(蘇打)<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>(酸性物質)<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>(鈉)<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span>(水)<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>(二氧化碳) </font>
<p><font size="4"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW">當泡打粉加入麵糊後,因為蘇打與酸的作用;產生產生膨發化學反應,產出的二氧化碳形成麵糊內部組織孔洞。這種化學反應是在泡打粉與麵糊(或水)接觸後立刻反應。 如果要在烤焙時的再次增加產品體積時,就要添加第二種以上的酸性乾物質。</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW">在發糕/或其他產品製作過程中,如果添加過量的泡打粉時, </span></font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4">會出現:產品太鹹,內部組織太粗(孔徑太大),甚至產品會有黏糊狀(產生水太多) </font>
<p><font size="4">&nbsp;</font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4">=========================== </font>
<p><font size="4">&nbsp;</font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4">酵母(yeast) 為天然菌類(fungus),食物來源為糖與澱粉;在生長過程時消耗糖/澱粉,而產生二氧化碳與酒精,在烘焙中稱為發酵(Fermentiaon)。 </font>
<p><font size="4">&nbsp;</font><span><font size="4">酵母(粉)</font><span lang="EN-US"><font size="4">Baking yeast </font>
<p><font size="4">&nbsp;</font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4">酵母粉是單細胞菌類(fungus)的活性乾燥粉體,當酵母粉(菌類)在麵粉中加水攪拌時,開始消耗糖跟澱粉,而產生二氧化碳與酒,便形成烘焙中的發酵作用。 </font>
<p><font size="4">&nbsp;</font><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4">================================================== </font>
<p><font size="4">&nbsp;<span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW">一般使用在麵糰類產品,如麵包等;以長時間,多次鬆弛的方法,讓二氧化碳將麵糰組織變成鬆軟,體積增加,同時因為酒精的產生,而讓麵糰產生特殊的風味。<br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><br />發糕的製作過程,如果用酵母來替代泡打粉;出現的問題就是,當發糕的麵糊攪拌完成後,立刻要做蒸的動作,酵母還沒有時間吃掉糖/澱粉來產生二氧化碳,所以不會有任何的發酵作用,出來的成品體積上不會有任何的變化。</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW">&nbsp;&nbsp;<br /></span></font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-ansi-language: ZH-TW"><font size="4"><br />相同的假設,如果在麵包製作使用泡打粉時,發生的問題就是,麵糰一打,泡打粉的膨發作用立刻發生,但是麵粉中的筋性還沒有發展,這時候產出的二氧化碳無法被保存在麵糰中,所以無法讓麵糰鬆弛/變大。所以後續的二次發酵,整型的動作,就完全不用談了;除非是配方中使用第二種酸物質的配方。 </font>
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麵包機跟麵粉配方 ─ 油,鮮奶,鹽

<p>隨著吃的健康的想法,越來越多人使用麵包機在家裡做起home made bread。<br /><br />幾位朋友問了些使用原料的問題,一些簡單的建議,可以試試看。<br /><br />自己廚房中烘焙的麵包,除了可以聞到出爐的麥香味外,在製作過程中,可以自己選擇喜好的添加物也可以避免非天然物。以油脂而言,可以用橄欖油替代白油。 橄欖油的優點遠遠操過氫化油<a href="http://blog.yam.com/hmpeng/article/14445881">http://blog.yam.com/hmpeng/article/14445881</a>&nbsp;健康油脂的使用,往往排在第一個考量。使用橄欖油製作的麵包,你將會發現純正的土司香味。橄欖油品牌跟使用量容許稍後再討論。<br /><br />在奶粉的部分,可以使用全脂鮮奶,直接取代奶粉跟水的比例,請參考<a href="http://blog.yam.com/hmpeng/article/10628077">http://blog.yam.com/hmpeng/article/10628077</a>。&nbsp;<br /><br />簡單的分析,土司配方裡面為什麼要加水,又要加奶粉?<br /><br />水是用來讓小麥麵粉的蛋白質與小麥澱粉產生麵糰的媒介,而奶粉的添加,是用來讓土司產生些許的牛奶風味。 奶粉來源,是將鮮奶去除水分後,再造粒而成的。 一般脫脂奶粉的脂肪含量有到10%左右,而全脂鮮奶的脂肪含量約3-5%.&nbsp; 以這樣的分析,大概就不難瞭解,直接以全脂鮮奶來替代水,奶粉,部分白油的油脂量優點。當然,成本高是一定的,但是自己做的土司,就是要朝向健康飲食的方向。<br /><br />鹽&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 一直是想強調的部分;<br />有人說,鹽可以用來強化麵粉中的麵糰強度。這個在中式麵食製品中,是成立的。但在土司的製成中,鹽只是單純用來增加風味,如同煮湯要加點鹽一樣的用法;很多人配方中的鹽使用量偏高,事實上是可以降低,而不會影響土司成品的風味。很多考生在烘焙技能檢定時,都會使用高量的鹽跟糖,如果使用了超過2%的用量,適時的降低,可以吃的更健康。<br /><br /><br />還是給朋友建議,調整烘焙配方中的百分比很簡單,可以自己當個魔法師,變出自己的特色,也吃的更健康。<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /></p>
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反制脂肪酸

今年起反制脂肪酸含量已經規定要標示在麵粉及相關產品上, 反制脂肪酸是從Trans Fatty Acid,翻譯過來。 一般天然的油脂(酸)是Fatty Acid,反制脂肪的產生是改變共價鍵的方向。最簡單常看到的製成方法就是將植物油經過氫化處理,將液態油脂變成固態。&nbsp;烘焙產品內常用的白油(雪花油)及酥油(白油加入色素及奶油香料)就屬於氫化油脂,而氫化油就含有高量的反制脂肪。<br /><br />氫化油的特性:打發性良好,易操作, 能代替純奶油,相對也比天然的奶油便宜。所以烘焙產品使用相當大量的氫化油。<br /><br />反制脂肪的影響:<br />會增高低密度脂蛋白(LDL),相對增高心血管疾病,例如心臟病,動脈硬化,及高血壓等的風險。<br />相關研究顯示,反式脂肪會使糖尿病患產生併發症的風險多四倍,也會使幼兒腦部發展遲緩,並使小兒過敏。<br /><br />國外最先:丹麥(這種事一定是歐洲啦)....政府規定自2004年1月1月起,凡是油脂中含有2%以上反型脂肪者,不得在丹麥販賣。美國政府也規定,自2006年起食品中要清楚標示含有多少成分的反型脂肪,希望能每年減少1200人發生心臟病及500人發生死亡。 目前的食品標示法規(美國、台灣)中並未要求廠商明確標示出反式脂肪的含量,只要求標示總脂肪含量。美國有一些醫藥研究學者開始要求政府修改食品標示法,希望能把反式脂肪含量與飽和脂肪量同時標示,因為這二者對心血管的危害是相同的。<br />台灣: 食品安全主管機關衛生署表示,國際間尚在評估反式脂肪酸的每日建議攝取參值、是否應標示、管理,因此仍以加強衛教宣導為主,提醒民眾「不管是什麼油,反正不要吃太多」--&gt;這真的會死人,什麼叫做「反正不要吃太多」。速食業、烘焙業是台灣反式脂肪主要使用者,喜歡吃這類食品的民眾、心血管疾病病患者飲食習慣需要修正。 <br />美國:全美向提高心臟血管疾病風險的反式脂肪宣戰,再下一城。速食業鉅子肯德基前天宣布,明年4月前,全美5500家連鎖店停用含反式脂肪烹飪油,改以健康大豆油來炸雞。消費者健康公益團體對此不吝讚揚,並聲稱反式脂肪「來日不多了」。 <br />◎溫蒂:全美分店今年已全面禁用反式脂肪烹飪油<br />◎迪士尼:全美樂園提供的兒童餐和授權卡通人物代言食品,2008年底前將全面禁用反式脂肪<br />◎肯德基:2007年4月前,油炸產品將不含反式脂肪(那2007年過後呢?)<br />◎星巴克:今秋起季節性烘焙品不含反式脂肪,飲料也「已更新含不大量人工反式脂肪成分的配方」<br />◎漢堡王:即將在分店測試不含反式脂肪的油炸產品<br />◎麥當勞:口頭承諾將替換烹飪油,杜絕反式脂肪,但是迄今沒有實際行動<br /><br />董氏基金會:<br />董氏基金會營養組主任許惠玉說,在食品包裝成分標示上,只要看到「氫化」、「半氫化」、「硬化」、「轉化」、「精製植物油」的烹飪油或油脂商品,大多含有反式脂肪。<br />另外,像泡麵若在成分標示「精製植物油」、起司餅乾標示「植物性乳化油」或者「氫化大豆油」、「氫化椰子油」、「氫化芥花油」、「氫化棕櫚油」、「氫化植物油」等油品以及植物性乳瑪琳等人造奶油,都含有反式脂肪酸。<br />相關/更多訊息:http://www.jtf.org.tw/forum/nutrition/message_view.asp?This=482&amp;Page=1<br /><br />哪些含有反制脂肪酸(Trans-fatty acid / Transfats / ):<br />含有反式脂肪的食品 <br />速食類:炸薯條、炸雞、炸鹽酥雞<br />點心類:甜甜圈、麵包、酥皮點心、糕餅類<br />零食類:洋芋片、零食餅乾、油炸速食麵、微波加熱爆米花<br />其他:奶精╱奶油球、植物性奶油、乳瑪琳、烤酥油<br />註:選擇食品可多留意營養成分標示,凡其中含有氫化植物油(hydrogenated oil)、氫化棕櫚油(hydrogenated palm oil)、植物乳化油(vegetable shortenings)者,表示有反式脂肪。<br /><br />
繼續閱讀

麵粉 漲 漲 漲

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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />但是,這是近期美國堪薩斯小麥期貨指數。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">從去年第三季開始破歷史新高後,每月都在寫記錄,在上星期更達到每口</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">12</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">美元的驚人高價。 </span></font><span lang="EN-US">
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<font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">上次的經驗是:</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">1997</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年在堪薩斯州立大學農經系上期貨課程時,我們這組有投資小麥期貨,學生有的是時間作線性模型分析,作產品價差,初期獲利不錯。但是一個短期的旱災,一個月內價格從</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">2.7</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">美元狂漲到</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">7.9</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">美元;一群人變成斷頭戶。但是小麥價格在隨後的第四季跟下一年度,價格就回穩。</span></font>
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">反看這次的漲幅,持續一年看回不回。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">跌破自己的分析角度,也值得從新思考大宗物資對國內物價的影響。</span><span lang="EN-US"><shape id="_x0000_i1028" style="WIDTH: 222pt; HEIGHT: 124.5pt" type="#_x0000_t75"></shape><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;<br /></font></span></font><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><img style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 0px; BORDER-LEFT-WIDTH: 0px; FLOAT: left; BORDER-BOTTOM-WIDTH: 0px; MARGIN: 0.7em 1.4em 0.7em 0px; WIDTH: 173px; HEIGHT: 99px; BORDER-RIGHT-WIDTH: 0px" height="78" alt="" src="http://pics6.blog.yam.com/8/userfile/h/hmpeng/blog/147c19f2ca929f.jpg" width="122" />漲勢伏筆─</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">澳洲乾旱,生質柴油</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt">
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">2007</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">一月澳洲開始乾旱,這次的乾旱影響到小麥的收成,</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">AWB </font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">澳洲小麥局宣布禁止小麥出口。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">澳洲排全球第四</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">/</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">五的小麥出口國,宣布小麥短缺後,牛羊等畜牧業也因乾旱的影響,在半年後出現奶粉的產量不足;造成台灣進口奶粉價格一年內飆漲三,四倍。</span></font></p>
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">三年前美國開始有使用玉米跟黃豆,生產替代能源;當時看起來似乎剛起步,對農產品生產應該不會有影響。這想法就跟當初石油<chmetcnv unitname="公升" sourcevalue="1" hasspace="False" negative="False" numbertype="3" tcsc="1" w:st="on"></chmetcnv>一公升</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">20</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">元一樣,反正石油便宜沒有人在乎。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">在前年油價開始起漲時,美國替代能源工廠就已經開始運轉;去年原油大漲時,大量的玉米黃豆已經不再是糧食,而是轉變成生質柴油。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">玉米及黃豆的相對高利潤,吸引更多的農田轉種;而導致小麥田種植面積的減少。</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">2007</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年底,美國布希總統簽下替代</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">/</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">生質能源相關法案後,這種影響更深,也值的後續的觀察。</span></font></p>
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">漲勢</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt">
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">這波漲勢,剛好在</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">2007</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">美國小麥含有農藥巴拉松殘留,被扣在台中港後(註)。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">五月底到七月中,小麥現貨價格開始浮動,價格看回不回,屢屢創下新高。</span></font><span lang="EN-US">
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<font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">或許</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">2007</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">七月底是整個漲勢的開始:</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">當台灣國內小麥庫存不到一個月耗用量時,連三,四十年的老客戶都上門拜託要預留麵粉的同時,國際小麥行情已經開始突破六,七美元;而國內新聞依舊在播放互揭醜聞的舊新聞,還關愛不到民生用品的需求。</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span></font>
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">供給</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">vs. </font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">需求:經濟學的基本兩條線開始發揮自然調整功能。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">現有庫存量的不足加上後續的八</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">/</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">九月份,能進口小麥數量的不確定性,自由市場機制理所當然開始發揮功能,國內麵粉價格開始起漲。</span></font></p>
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">石油大漲開始引起開車族的不滿,相對的在小麥海運費上也創下新高。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">中國舉辦奧運建設,需要大量的海沙</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">/</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">礦沙</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">/</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">建築物資等;需要大量的海上運輸。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">相對的影響全球的海運費用。一噸小麥的海運費去年狂飆約四倍,也造成麵粉漲價的一部份原因。</span></font></p>
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">小麥再漲</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt">
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">麵粉漲價後,又陸續調漲,除了國內因素外;</span><font face="Times New Roman"> <span lang="EN-US">2007/2008</span></font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">澳洲小麥收成依舊欠收,全球小麥供給量仍然不見改善;原油突破</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">100</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">美元,使得更多的玉米黃豆轉換成生質柴油。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">近期美國農業部發佈美國的小麥庫存量不到兩個月的消息後,小麥價格應聲大漲。其中以硬紅春麥(國內使用來生產高筋麵粉)更是突破</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">19</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">美元</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">, </font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">比對</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">2007</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">第一季價格足足漲了快五倍之多。</span></font></p>
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<p><font face="Times New Roman" size="3">&nbsp;
<div style="TEXT-ALIGN: center"><img style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 0px; BORDER-LEFT-WIDTH: 0px; BORDER-BOTTOM-WIDTH: 0px; MARGIN: 0.7em 0px; WIDTH: 147px; HEIGHT: 90px; BORDER-RIGHT-WIDTH: 0px" height="96" alt="" src="http://pics6.blog.yam.com/8/userfile/h/hmpeng/blog/147c19fb75e0e1.jpg" width="202" /></div>
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">小麥市場如同許多專家所言,已經到了不可預知的情勢。</span><font face="Times New Roman"> </font><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">加上糧食基金的投入,短期內要看到價格穩定似乎不太可能。農夫朋友使用</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">option </font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">風險也升高,小麥使用者一方面怕追高價,另一方面又怕庫存量不足而造成後續全球價格飆漲。</span></font><span lang="EN-US">
<p><font face="Times New Roman" size="3">&nbsp;</font></p>
</span></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">至於回穩後的小麥價格在哪一個區域,或是會不會回穩,也沒法預估。</span><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></font><span lang="EN-US">
<p><font face="Times New Roman" size="3">&nbsp;</font></p>
</span></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><font size="3"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">不過以後麵粉一包</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">300</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">元的情景如同</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">95</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">汽油<chmetcnv unitname="公升" sourcevalue="1" hasspace="False" negative="False" numbertype="3" tcsc="1" w:st="on"></chmetcnv>一公升</span><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">20</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">元,應該是不會再出現的。</span></font></p>
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繼續閱讀

免費提供 麵包機 土司預拌粉

<p><font color="#ff6600" size="4"><strong>麵包機&nbsp; 土司專用粉<br /></strong></font><br /><img style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 0px; BORDER-LEFT-WIDTH: 0px; FLOAT: left; BORDER-BOTTOM-WIDTH: 0px; MARGIN: 0.7em 1.4em 0.7em 0px; BORDER-RIGHT-WIDTH: 0px" alt="" src="http://pics6.blog.yam.com/8/userfile/h/hmpeng/blog/14799c61d2a6ee.jpg" /><br /><br /><font color="#000000">不知道大家使用麵包機做出來的口感如何,常遇到的問題不外乎皮太厚,內部組織粗糙,保存不易。<br /><br />想廣邀各方英雄豪傑,請把問題PO上來。<br /></font><br /><br /><br /><br /><img style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 0px; BORDER-LEFT-WIDTH: 0px; FLOAT: left; BORDER-BOTTOM-WIDTH: 0px; MARGIN: 0.7em 1.4em 0.7em 0px; BORDER-RIGHT-WIDTH: 0px" alt="" src="http://pics6.blog.yam.com/8/userfile/h/hmpeng/blog/14799c6471da5a.jpg" /><br /><font color="#000000">將<font face="標楷體" color="#ff0000" size="4">免費提供麵包預拌粉,50人次</font>,來測試成品品質。 有興趣的朋友,請將遇到的問題,跟使用的品牌,PO給我,也同時請將麵包機上的建議配方跟機器上的標準設定時間一併提供。<br /><br /></font><strong><font size="3"><br /><br /><font color="#000000">預拌粉使用方法: 只要預拌粉粉加水放到麵包機內即可。&nbsp;<br />預拌粉可以提供&nbsp;穩定的成品品質,跟最簡易的操作方法。<br /><br />自行搭配材料的問題:一般在烘焙材料行買的麵粉,不容易得知是否適合&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 土司製作。 對於麵粉的蛋白質含量,吸水性,攪拌性質也不易確定下,相對造成土司成品的品質不穩定。<br /><br />麵粉國家標準<br /><a href="http://blog.yam.com/hmpeng/article/13554490">http://blog.yam.com/hmpeng/article/13554490</a><br /><br />關於烘焙配方的重要性請參考<br /><br />白粉的秘密<br /></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="http://blog.yam.com/hmpeng/article/10628077">http://blog.yam.com/hmpeng/article/10628077</a><br />&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br /></font></strong></p>
繼續閱讀

麵粉國家標準

<p><br /><font color="#ff6600" size="4"><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font size="5">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;麵粉國家標準&nbsp;<br /></font><br /><img style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 0px; BORDER-LEFT-WIDTH: 0px; FLOAT: left; BORDER-BOTTOM-WIDTH: 0px; MARGIN: 0.7em 1.4em 0.7em 0px; BORDER-RIGHT-WIDTH: 0px" height="156" alt="" src="http://pics6.blog.yam.com/8/userfile/h/hmpeng/blog/14796005be85e4.jpg" width="211" /><br /><img style="BORDER-TOP-WIDTH: 0px; BORDER-LEFT-WIDTH: 0px; FLOAT: right; BORDER-BOTTOM-WIDTH: 0px; MARGIN: 0.7em 0px 1.4em 0.7em; WIDTH: 204px; HEIGHT: 167px; BORDER-RIGHT-WIDTH: 0px" height="186" alt="" src="http://pics6.blog.yam.com/8/userfile/h/hmpeng/blog/147960098830b1.jpg" width="219" /><br /></strong></font><font color="#000000"><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />經濟部CNS國家標準<font face="新細明體">:小麥麵粉分級標準<br /><br /><br />
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto" align="center"><font size="3"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">CNS386 </span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">篩<span lang="EN-US">
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<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 44.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 38.25pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: black; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">水分<span lang="EN-US">
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><font size="3"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">(</span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">最大<span lang="EN-US">)
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<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 53.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 38.25pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: black; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="71">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">粗纖維<span lang="EN-US">
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><font size="3"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">(</span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">最大<span lang="EN-US">)
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</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 35.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 38.25pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: black; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">灰分<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><font size="3"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">(</span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">最大<span lang="EN-US">)
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></span></font></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: black 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 43.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 38.25pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: inset windowtext .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">粗蛋白質含量<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="HEIGHT: 15.75pt; mso-yfti-irow: 1">
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: black 1pt inset; WIDTH: 45.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: #ece9d8 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 15.75pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="61">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">特高筋<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 35.6pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: #ece9d8; HEIGHT: 15.75pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">乳白<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 125.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: #ece9d8; HEIGHT: 15.75pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" valign="top" width="167">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">100%</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.2" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.2mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US"><br />40%</span>通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.125" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.125mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 44.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: #ece9d8; HEIGHT: 15.75pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">14%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 53.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: #ece9d8; HEIGHT: 15.75pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" valign="top" width="71">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">0.8%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 35.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: #ece9d8; HEIGHT: 15.75pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">1.0%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: black 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 43.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: #ece9d8 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 15.75pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">&gt;13.5%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="HEIGHT: 24pt; mso-yfti-irow: 2">
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: black 1pt inset; WIDTH: 45.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset black .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: inset windowtext .75pt" valign="top" width="61">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">高筋<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 35.6pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: black; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">乳白<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 125.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: black; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="167">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">100%</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.2" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.2mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US"><br />40%</span>通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.125" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.125mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 44.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: black; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">14%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 53.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: black; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="71">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">0.75%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 35.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: black; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">1.0%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: black 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: black 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 43.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: inset windowtext .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">&gt;11.5%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="HEIGHT: 24pt; mso-yfti-irow: 3">
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: black 1pt inset; WIDTH: 45.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: windowtext; mso-border-left-alt: black; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="61">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">粉心<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 35.6pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">乳白<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 125.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="167">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">100%</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.2" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.2mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US"><br />40%</span>通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.125" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.125mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 44.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">14%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 53.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="71">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">0.75%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 35.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">0.8%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: black 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 43.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: black; mso-border-top-alt: windowtext; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">&gt;10.5%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="HEIGHT: 24pt; mso-yfti-irow: 4">
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: black 1pt inset; WIDTH: 45.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: windowtext; mso-border-left-alt: black; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="61">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">中筋<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 35.6pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">乳白<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 125.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="167">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">100%</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.2" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.2mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US"><br />40%</span>通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.125" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.125mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 44.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">13.8%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 53.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="71">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">0.55%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 35.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">0.65%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: black 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 43.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: black; mso-border-top-alt: windowtext; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">&gt;9.5%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="HEIGHT: 24pt; mso-yfti-irow: 5; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes">
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: black 1pt inset; WIDTH: 45.85pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: windowtext; mso-border-top-alt: windowtext; mso-border-left-alt: black; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="61">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">低筋<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 35.6pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">白<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 125.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="167">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">100%</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體">通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.2" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.2mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US"><br />40%</span>通過<chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="0.125" unitname="mm"><span lang="EN-US">0.125mm</span></chmetcnv>孔徑篩<span lang="EN-US">
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</span></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 44.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">13.8%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 53.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="71">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">0.5%1.0%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 35.3pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-alt: inset windowtext .75pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: inset black .75pt" valign="top" width="47">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">0.5%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
<td style="BORDER-RIGHT: black 1pt inset; PADDING-RIGHT: 0.75pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8 1pt inset; PADDING-LEFT: 0.75pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8 1pt inset; WIDTH: 43.95pt; PADDING-TOP: 0.75pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: black 1pt inset; HEIGHT: 24pt; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; mso-border-right-alt: black; mso-border-top-alt: windowtext; mso-border-left-alt: windowtext; mso-border-bottom-alt: black; mso-border-style-alt: inset; mso-border-width-alt: .75pt" valign="top" width="59">
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><font size="3">&lt;6.5%
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</font></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</font></font></p>
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麵粉漲價

今年麵粉價格大漲,在5月份左右就開始出現端倪,只是大宗物資沒有人能事前看的準,只能做事後諸葛來討論。 5月就發覺小麥市場的波動,到今天為止,經歷,應該說還在經歷中,有史以來國內麵粉價格的高峰。<br /><br />問過許多同業前輩,老一代的中盤商,能得到的結論是從日據時代到現在為止,從沒有看過麵粉的末端價格超過四百元/包。而現在市價部分已經超過600元/包。<br /><br />任何商品都需要從供給基本面來看,小麥是麵粉的原料,台灣麵粉廠使用100%的進口小麥來製作國內麵粉。小麥來源以美國小麥占85-95%,&nbsp; 澳洲小麥15-5%左右。而今年澳洲在短短兩個月中發佈乾旱消息,進而禁止澳洲小麥的出口。 很多人知道澳洲人口少,但卻很少人知道澳洲的農業發達。澳洲小麥的出口量占世界小麥市場的第五名。一個重要出口國臨時發生旱災,所引起的連鎖反應在短短兩個月就反應在小麥價格上。&nbsp;短缺的小麥來源就導致美國小麥出口的強烈市場需求,到10月USDA發佈美國庫存量是最近十年來的最低時,又引起期貨/現貨市場的波動。<br /><br />年初每英斗小麥價格在4.0美元左右,到11月為止出現的高價在8.7美元;加上今年原油價格破百美元/桶;反映到麵粉售價上5-6百元/包算是正常。<br /><br />現在客戶問我麵粉價格會不會跌? 看著地球因為聖嬰現像而導致農產品收成難以預計,加上原油不斷的上漲影響。&nbsp; 大概只能說,一包麵粉500多元以後會習以為常。
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麵粉漂白 part I ─ 不要用

<font size="3"><br />台灣的麵粉在印象中,三,四十年前就禁止使用漂白劑;這對消費者的健康絕對是好的政策。<br /><br />但是前幾年,衛生署更改法令,允許麵粉可以使用漂白劑;不清楚這政策改變的原因。但是清楚的是,麵粉使用化學藥品來達到漂白的目的,對人體絕對有影響。<br /><br />使用在麵粉的漂白劑絕大部份是:<br /></font><font face="新細明體"><font size="3">過氧化苯甲醯, Benzoyl Peroxide, 有人簡稱BPO。&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </font>(C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>5</sub>CO)<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp; 或&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;C<sub>14</sub>H<sub>10</sub>O<sub>4<a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Benzoyl-peroxide-2D-skeletal.png" target="GuruWnd" el="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Benzoyl-peroxide-2D-skeletal.png" lpos="" lid=""><img alt="Benzoyl-peroxide-2D-skeletal.png" src="http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/f/f0/200px-Benzoyl-peroxide-2D-skeletal.png" /></a><br /><font size="4"><br />是一種白色且易燃粉末。使用這漂白劑,可以使麵粉在幾分鐘之內顏色變成純白色。做出來的麵條,麵包顏色相對呈現非常的白晰,甚至接近異常的死灰白。<br /><br /><br />但是,麵粉可以靠時間自然氧化熟成後,顏色稍微變白;或是使用天然黃豆粉來使產品變白。<br />含有化學藥品的食物,總是對健康不良; 請大家不要用漂白麵粉,也請到衛生署<br />網站上反應,要求修改法則;大聲說,我們不要有漂白的麵粉。<br /><br /><br /><br /></font></sub></font>
繼續閱讀

關鍵的控制:烘焙百分比

<br /><font color="#ff6600" size="3"><strong>不論西式烘焙或是中式麵食考試,第一個要學的就是烘焙百分比計算,或是配方表計算。<br /></strong></font><br />中式跟西式的計算方法,除了中式麵食的油皮,內餡稍許不同外,基本上都相似; <br />都以麵粉為100%為主體,來換算其他配料的計算。&nbsp; 配方表計算除了在表示成品的組合外,也通時在做成品品質的控管。&nbsp;<br /><br />值的一題的是,很多人忽略了配方表計算的第一項: 麵粉。<br />為什麼要以麵粉當100%,其他的當配料來換算;或許有人會認為:因為一個產品中,麵粉的使用量最高,所以麵粉當成100%的基礎。這也是對的,但是在高糖高油含量產品中,這或許就不成立。<br /><br />其實烘焙計算中第一個要列出的就是麵粉,然後再依序列出要使用的副原料;這目的也同時在提醒烘焙/麵食生產者,麵粉的重要性。&nbsp; 當選擇了好品質/適性性好的麵粉時,依照配方要做出的產品就已經至少達到80%的成功率。<br /><br />其次,在配方表上,也可以用來自行檢討影響製成品的優缺點。<br />現在的趨勢,在於使用低糖,低鹽,低油/降低反制脂肪酸的使用,也建議盡量降低化學藥品的使用。 乳化劑,鹼粉,色素,氨等等的用量,當在配方表上出現這些添加物時;如果可以減少0.1%的用量,對於人體也會更健康。<br /><br />所以,熟練烘焙計算是基本功夫;然後藉由烘焙百分比計算來衍生出產品的特色,更可以控制產品的健康成分。當然,烘焙時間流程控制表,雖然在這裡沒有談到,卻也是必須按部就班紀錄。<br />
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